swedish education system
Key documents: Elementary Education Statute, Law on the Education for Educable Feebleminded, 1962 Curriculum for Compulsory Education, Special School Act, School Regulation Act, Swedish Constitution, Education Act (1985), Primary School Regulation, Law regulating Support and Service to Persons with Certain Functional Disabilities, 1994 Elementary School Curriculum, Act on Discrimination against Children, Discrimination Act, and the Education Act (2010).
Characteristics: Special education services have existed in the Swedish education system since before the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They also recognised and classified autism as a condition on par with developmental disorders as early as 1985 and later differentiated it from intellectual disabilities in 2010. Additionally, the Swedish system is structured in its approach towards special education needs. According to the mapped legislation, special education needs should first be addressed in mainstream classrooms to the best of the teacherвЂ™s abilities. Only when it is no longer feasible to keep a child with special education needs in a mainstream classroom, can a transferral to special education be considered. Also, since the municipalities are in charge of their respective primary and secondary schools, the financing of special needs support in these schools is state-governed.
Publication date: 22 November 2019
In this chapter, the author characterises the situation of Roma in the educational system of Sweden, focusing on achievements after year 2000 and on challenges for the future. A brief historical background is initially presented to frame the discussion, including the processes of getting access to the formal educational system, followed by an overview of the socioeconomic situation of Roma and a presentation of the recognition of Roma as a national minority in 2000 and the Strategy for Roma Inclusion 2012–2032. The second part of the chapter is focusing on the educational situation of Roma, more specifically on the years from 2000 until the present, also presenting a Roma example and findings from a study concerning higher education and the first course for Roma mediators working in schools. The conclusion discusses some of the achievements reached during recent years as well as challenges and priorities for the future of the Roma minority.